Edited by B.S.Jackson


This book is a compilation of articles written mainly by Evode Laboratory Staff from the 1970's. It covers the use and application of many different types of adhesive and sealant in a wide range of industries, and also some of the basic science and technology in this field at the time. While it refers extensively to different chemical types of adhesive and sealant it does not cover any formulating information.

This book indicates the wide spread of knowledge and experience of the technical staff of Evode in the 1970's. In the Evode history Project it could be used as a reference source to anyone wishing to explore the technology of the products the company manufactured at that time. Developments in industry since the 1970's will have changed the technology and some of the industries discussed are no longer important in the U.K.

Chapter 1.
General Properties of Polymers used in Adhesives and Sealants.
Author W.C.Wake Ph.D. D.Sc.(London) C.Chem. F.R.I.C. Consultant.

In this chapter Dr.Wake deals with the chemical basis of polymers used as adhesives starting with animal glues which have been known from ancient times and going on to products derived from thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers made by the chemical industry. He then deals with the physical properties of such polymers and how these are affected by ambient temperature, and deals mathematically with the concept of viscoelasticity. Dr. Wake then discusses the durability of polymers used as adhesives and how certain environmental effects such as oxidation,hydrolysis and light can affect them.

Chapter 2.
Theories of Adhesion and Joint Strength.
Authors V.Vohralik B.Sc. Managing Director, Evode Ltd. and W.C.Wake.

This chapter introduces the various theories of adhesion in relation to the microscopic nature of surfaces.
These are :- A mathematical analysis is used to discuss the relative merits of these theories. Later in the chapter a semi-mathematical treatment of the measurement of joint strength using various well established testing techniques is given.

Chapter 3.
Some basic principles of Sealants.
Author B.S.Jackson B.Sc. Ph.D. Director of Research, Evode Holdings Ltd.

The author starts by discussing the building and construction industry and outlining why there is a need for sealants which can accommodate movement in gaps in building structures. These movements are caused by temperature variations, wind , moisture adsorption etc. This leads on to a discussion of the properties required of sealants. The types of polymer used are reviewed and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. A description of the Constant Rate Penetrometer follows and how the traces obtained from it can be used to examine the properties of sealants in use.

Chapter 4.
The preparation of substrate surfaces in modern adhesive technology
Authors C.H.Lovatt, Evode Ltd. And G.D. Aitchison Evode Ltd.

This chapter first describes the important requirements for obtaining a good adhesive bond, namely clean surfaces free from contamination, and how these an be obtained. Mechanical abrasion, solvent degreasing and chemical treatments are all discussed. Various primer systems used in different applications are also covered.

Chapter 5.
The nature of Tack.
Author R.Bates B.Sc., Ph.D. Development Chemist, Evode Ltd., and P.J.C.Counsell B.Sc. , Ph.D. Group Research Manager, Evode Holdings Ltd.

The "tack" of adhesive materials is an ill defined property relating to their ability to bond Quickly on light contact. The authors discuss this property and examine various methods of testing used to measure it. A more detailed account of the "Probe tack test" follows with details of the effect on measured tack of different physical parameters such as residence time, film thickness, probe mass, nature of probe material and ambient temperature.

Chapter 6.
The Transport Industries.
Authors B.J.Hayes, Technical Manager,Ciba-Geigy (UK) Ltd., R.Larsen, Director, Tech.Service and Development Lab., Thiokol Chemicals Ltd. , N.C. MacDonald, Technical Director, Evode Ltd., J.E.Reid, Technical Director, Evode Industries Ltd., Ireland.

This chapter deals at length with different applications for adhesives and sealants in the construction of cars, buses and coaches, goods vehicles, railway roiling stock, aircraft, hovercraft and boats.

Chapter 7.
Domestic Appliances.
Authors M.V.Cooksley M.A. Oxon, Development Chemist, Evode Ltd. and G.S.Green B.Sc., L.R.I.C., Chemist-in-Charge, General Projects, Evode Ltd.

The uses of adhesives and sealants in the construction of domestic appliances is covered by the authors, including cookers, refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum cleaners etc. Chemical types are reviewed and the required functions defined. Some applications are discussed in the final part of the chapter.

Chapter 8A.
Adhesives in Building.
Author H.J.Chard. B.Sc., Technical Director, Evode (Export) Ltd.

A comprehensive summary of the usage of adhesives in building, construction, fitting and decoration is given in this chapter. It covers ceramic tiles, floor tiles, mosaics, floor coverings, seaming of carpets with electrically activated hot melt tape, wall panel fixing, ceiling tile installation and thermal insulation attachment.

Chapter 8B.
Sealing compounds for Building and Construction.
Author M.J. Welch B.Sc., Ph.D. Development Manager, Evode Ltd.

The author discusses the technology of low rise and high rise building construction and why it is necessary to have gaps to allow for movement, which have to be sealed for decorative, water and wind exclusion and sound insulation purposes. The various polymer types used in sealants are reviewed and a final comment made on the weathering of these material


Chapter 8C.
Hot poured Bituminous Joint sealants for roads.
Author H.Venton B.Sc. Development Manager, Evode Ltd.

The use of modified bitumen and coal tar compositions for sealing joints in concrete roads is discussed. Compositions containing rubber added to the molten bitumen possess a degree of movement capability enabling a good seal to be maintained as the temperature varies. The specifications and testing of such materials is reviewed.

Chapter 9.
Woodworking and the Furniture Industry.

Authors A.J.Turner L.R.I.C. and A.J.Sparkes B.Sc. F.I.R.A.

The authors review the use of various kinds of adhesive in the furniture industry with urea formaldehyde resins and polyvinyl acetate emulsions being the most important. Hot melt adhesives have also found a place in modern flow line production methods. The production of laminates, use of plastic foils, assembly of panels and edge banding are also covered.

Chapter 10.
The Shoe Industry.
Authors C.E.Webb, B.Sc., F.R.I.C., F.I.R.I., Technical Director, Vik Supplies Ltd., D.Pettit B.Sc., A.R.I.C., A.R.Carter, L.R.I.C., A.B.S.I.. and F.B. Blackwell, A.R.I.C., Shoe and Allied Trades Research Assn.

This old established industry is quite specialised and employs many different types of material in shoe construction. These in turn require different types of adhesive but polychloroprene and polyurethane based products are the most widely used. The use of different types of machinery in conjunction with adhesives is reviewed and there is a section on toe puffs and stiffeners. The chapter concludes with a discussion of some of the modern direct moulding processes used for sole attachment.

Chapter 11.
Packaging, Paper Converting and Bookbinding.
Author J.A.Parsons, B.Sc., A.R.I.C., Managing Director, Evacor Resins Ltd.

This chapter is mainly concerned with the use of paper in the above mentioned industries. Paper is relatively easy to bond and animal glues, starch, dextrines, polyvinyl acetate emulsions, rubber latex and hot melt adhesives are all used with the newer materials gaining ground at the expense of the older ones. The application machinery used with these adhesives is mentioned. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the specialised requirements of bookbinding in respect of adhesives.

Chapter 12.
Adhesive application methods.
Author M.E.Chard, Service Manager, Evode Ltd.

Traditional hand application methods are covered together with larger scale techniques used in industry.

The book is illustrated with a number of figures covering graphical interpretation of data, together with a number of monochrome photographs showing some of the specialised test techniques and application methods for adhesives and sealants.

Review by P.J.C.Counsell 24 September 2007.