Background on Argentina and the Argentinian Licensees.

Argentina is a wedge shaped country occupying the greater proportion of the continent of South America. It extends from Bolivia to Cape Horn a total distance of almost 2,300 miles (ca.3,700km.) and its greatest breadth is about 930 miles (ca.1,490km).

It is bounded on the north by Bolivia, on the north east by Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay, on the south east and the east by the Atlantic Ocean and on the west by Chile separated by the Cordillera de los Andes. The Cordelleras extend from the northern to the southern boundaries. On the east are the great plains, those in the north being thickly wooded, known as El Gran Chaco, and in the south are the pampas. To the south of the Rio Negro are the vast plains of Patagonia.

The Parana River is formed by the junction of the Upper Parana and with the Paraguay River and flows through the north eastern states to the Atlantic Ocean, and is navigable throughout its course. In the Province of Buenos Aires the Salado del Sud flows south east for 300 miles (ca.500km) into Samborombon Bay on the Atlantic Ocean.

The Republic consists of 23 provinces and one federal district comprising 1,112,743 square miles (ca.2,850,000 with an estimated population of 22 million people at the time of the first license in the mid 1960`s.

The Spanish language is the recognised official language of the country being a colonial country of Spain with the first president being Pedro de Mendoza in 1535.

Buenos Aires, which is also a federal district, is the capital, other major cities being Cordoba, Rosario, Plata, Mar del Plata, San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza.

The recognised and constitutional religion is Roman Catholic.

The Constitution adopted is very similar to that of the United States. A President and a Vice President are elected for 4 years. The Lower House consists of 259 Deputies elected for 4 years and the Upper House of 72 Senators elected for 6 years. All are elected by Universal Suffrage and all of the population over the age of 18 have the vote. The country became a member of the United nations in 1945.

Historically the transformation to a democracy has been long and turbulent.

A military coup saw Juan Peron established as President between 1944 and 1955 after which he was banished and lived in Spain. Between the years of the early 1960s and 1980s when the license was active there were many Presidents and the economic situation went from bad to worse.

There was a military coup in June 1966 and the man who eventually became President attempted to return the country to civilian control but unrest was rife within the country. In the elections in March 1971 the Peronistas gained ascendancy and Peron returned in June 1973. He was elected President in September with his third wife Isabella de Peron as Vice President. Peron died on 1 July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife but terrorist activity took hold in 1975 and the economic situation deteriorated.

( Isabel Peron was exiled to Spain when she was deposed. In January 2007 the police in Spain detained her on suspicion of dissident killings during her rule).

A military junta took control of the country in March 1976 and dissolved the legislature, imposed martial law and ruled by decree. This junta was ruled by Lt. Gen. J. F. Videla and this began the repression of the civilian population. In due course Gen. Galtieri became its leader and he decided to invade the Falklands Islands in 1982.

There is little wonder that Chemotecnica Sintyal gave up the license under the circumstances around this time.

During their visits to Stafford I never met Dr. Gold or Mr. L. Tcherniak. I did meet Dr. M. Tcherniak on a few occasions and, because HS dealt closely with all of the negotiations, I was never involved in any aspect of the performance of Chemotecnica Sintyal, only on technical matters was I involved. Under the chaotic circumstances which prevailed there is little wonder that it took so long for Chemotecnica Sintyal to commence production and, so far as Evode Ltd. was concerned, there was little or no yield to this association.

January 2007.